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From its very title, Sebastian Groes's study of London in contemporary literature points to the notion of 'making', i.e. 'the constructed and artificial nature of the.
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Helsinki: Svenska Litteratursallskapet i Finland. Riikonen, H. Turku: Turun yliopisto, London: Routledge.

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Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Ackroyd, Peter London: The Biography. Die Literaturwissenschaften und der Spatial Turn. Bielefeld: transcript, In: Tambling, Jeremy ed. The Palgrave Handbook of Literature and the City. London: Palgrave Macmillan, — In: Finch, Jason. Amsterdam: Benjamins, — Literature and the Peripheral City. London: Palgrave Macmillan, Journal of Urban Cultural Studies 2 3 , — How Material? Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, Freeman, Nicholas Conceiving the City. London, Literature, and Art Oxford: Oxford University Press. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Berkeley: University of California Press. Nead, Lynda Victorian Babylon. People, streets and images in nineteenth-century London. London: Yale University Press. Phillips, Lawrence The swarming streets : twentieth-century literary representations of London. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Bielefeld: Transcript.

Perfect, Michael. London: Palgrave, Shepherd, Francis London: A History. London: The British Library. London: Bodley Head. Zemgulys, Andrea P. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Higonnet, Patrice Paris. Capital of the World. Horvath, Christina Le roman urbain contemporain en France. Paris : Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle. Mehta, Brinda J. In: Research in African Literatures vol. Prendergast, Christopher Paris and the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, MA : Blackwell. Reznicek, Matthew Stierle, Karlheinz Der Mythos von Paris.

Zeichen und Bewusstsein der Stadt. Kajannes eds. Kirjoituksia kirjallisuuden postmodernismista, Veivo, Harri Written Space. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination , Heidelberg: Winter, Borg, Alexandra En Vildmark av Sten. Stockholm i Litteraturen Jahrhundert: Wandlungen des Venedig-Bildes und der Reisebeschreibungen. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Hamburg: Diplomica Verlag. Dieterle, Bernard Die versunkene Stadt. Sechs Kapitel zum literarischen Venedig-Mythos. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. English Fantasies of Venice. Amsterdam-Atlanta, GA: Rodopi. Sarter, Peter Venedigbilder. Frankfurt: Materiales. Tanner, Tony Venice Desired. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Helsinki: SKS, In Kurikka, Kaisa ed. Turku: Turku University, 13— Groningen: Barkhuis, In: A. Oakley—Brown Eds. Broomans ed. Women as Transmitters of Ideas. Groningen: Barkhuis, , pp. In: Sekse en de City. Jaarboek voor Vrouwengeschiedenis 22, Uitgeverij Aksant, , pp.

In: On the treshold. Novelistic Representations of Copenhagen. Formation, Perception, Representation. London: Routledge, — From J. Salinger 's Nine Stories and The Catcher in the Rye to Sylvia Plath 's The Bell Jar , the perceived madness of the state of affairs in America was brought to the forefront of the nation's literary expression. Immigrant authors such as Vladimir Nabokov , with Lolita , forged on with the theme, and, at almost the same time, the beatniks took a concerted step away from their Lost Generation predecessors, developing a style and tone of their own by drawing on Eastern theology and experimenting with recreational drugs.

The poetry and fiction of the " Beat Generation ", largely born of a circle of intellects formed in New York City around Columbia University and established more officially some time later in San Francisco, came of age.

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The term Beat referred, all at the same time, to the countercultural rhythm of the Jazz scene, to a sense of rebellion regarding the conservative stress of post-war society, and to an interest in new forms of spiritual experience through drugs, alcohol, philosophy, and religion, and specifically through Zen Buddhism. Allen Ginsberg set the tone of the movement in his poem Howl , a Whitmanesque work that began: "I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness Burroughs 's Naked Lunch , a more experimental work structured as a series of vignettes relating, among other things, the narrator's travels and experiments with hard drugs.

Regarding the war novel specifically, there was a literary explosion in America during the post—World War II era. The Moviegoer , by Southern author Walker Percy , winner of the National Book Award, was his attempt at exploring "the dislocation of man in the modern age. In contrast, John Updike approached American life from a more reflective but no less subversive perspective.

His novel Rabbit, Run , the first of four chronicling the rising and falling fortunes of Harry "Rabbit" Angstrom over the course of four decades against the backdrop of the major events of the second half of the 20th century, broke new ground on its release in its characterization and detail of the American middle class and frank discussion of taboo topics such as adultery. Notable among Updike's characteristic innovations was his use of present-tense narration, his rich, stylized language, and his attention to sensual detail.

His work is also deeply imbued with Christian themes.

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Other notable works include the Henry Bech novels —98 , The Witches of Eastwick , Roger's Version and In the Beauty of the Lilies , which literary critic Michiko Kakutani called "arguably his finest. Frequently linked with Updike is the novelist Philip Roth. Roth vigorously explores Jewish identity in American society, especially in the postwar era and the early 21st century.

Frequently set in Newark, New Jersey , Roth's work is known to be highly autobiographical, and many of Roth's main characters, most famously the Jewish novelist Nathan Zuckerman , are thought to be alter egos of Roth. With these techniques, and armed with his articulate and fast-paced style, Roth explores the distinction between reality and fiction in literature while provocatively examining American culture.

His most famous work includes the Zuckerman novels, the controversial Portnoy's Complaint , and Goodbye, Columbus Among the most decorated American writers of his generation, he has won every major American literary award, including the Pulitzer Prize for his major novel American Pastoral In the realm of African-American literature, Ralph Ellison 's novel Invisible Man was instantly recognized as among the most powerful and important works of the immediate post-war years. The story of a black Underground Man in the urban north, the novel laid bare the often repressed racial tension that still prevailed while also succeeding as an existential character study.

Richard Wright was catapulted to fame by the publication in subsequent years of his now widely studied short story, " The Man Who Was Almost a Man " , and his controversial second novel, Native Son , and his legacy was cemented by the publication of Black Boy , a work in which Wright drew on his childhood and mostly autodidactic education in the segregated South, fictionalizing and exaggerating some elements as he saw fit. Because of its polemical themes and Wright's involvement with the Communist Party , the novel's final part, "American Hunger", was not published until Perhaps the most ambitious and challenging post-war American novelist was William Gaddis , whose uncompromising, satiric, and large novels, such as The Recognitions and J R are presented largely in terms of unattributed dialog that requires almost unexampled reader participation.

Gaddis's primary themes include forgery, capitalism, religious zealotry, and the legal system, constituting a sustained polyphonic critique of modern American life. Gaddis's work, though largely ignored for years, anticipated and influenced the development of such ambitious "postmodern" fiction writers as Thomas Pynchon , David Foster Wallace , Joseph McElroy , William H.

Gass , and Don DeLillo. Another neglected and challenging postwar American novelist, albeit one who wrote much shorter works, was John Hawkes , whose surreal visionary fiction addresses themes of violence and eroticism and experiments audaciously with narrative voice and style. Among his most important works is the short nightmarish novel The Lime Twig In the postwar period, the art of the short story again flourished. Among its most respected practitioners was Flannery O'Connor , who developed a distinctive Southern gothic esthetic in which characters acted at one level as people and at another as symbols.

A devout Catholic, O'Connor often imbued her stories, among them the widely studied " A Good Man is Hard to Find " and " Everything That Rises Must Converge ", and two novels, Wise Blood ; The Violent Bear It Away , with deeply religious themes, focusing particularly on the search for truth and religious skepticism against the backdrop of the nuclear age. In addition, in this same period the confessional , whose origin is often traced to the publication in of Robert Lowell 's Life Studies , [24] and beat schools of poetry enjoyed popular and academic success, producing such widely anthologized voices as Allen Ginsberg , Charles Bukowski , Gary Snyder , Anne Sexton , and Sylvia Plath , among many others.

Though its exact parameters remain disputable, from the early s to the present day the most salient literary movement has been postmodernism. Thomas Pynchon , a seminal practitioner of the form, drew in his work on modernist fixtures such as temporal distortion, unreliable narrators, and internal monologue and coupled them with distinctly postmodern techniques such as metafiction , ideogrammatic characterization, unrealistic names Oedipa Maas, Benny Profane, etc.

In , he published Gravity's Rainbow , a leading work in this genre, which won the National Book Award and was unanimously nominated for the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction that year. His other major works include his debut, V. Toni Morrison , recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature, writing in a distinctive lyrical prose style, published her controversial debut novel, The Bluest Eye , to critical acclaim in Coming on the heels of the signing of the Civil Rights Act of , the novel, widely studied in American schools, includes an elaborate description of incestuous rape and explores the conventions of beauty established by a historically racist society, painting a portrait of a self-immolating black family in search of beauty in whiteness.

Since then, Morrison has experimented with lyric fantasy, as in her two best-known later works, Song of Solomon and Beloved , for which she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction; along these lines, critic Harold Bloom has drawn favorable comparisons to Virginia Woolf , [25] and the Nobel committee to "Faulkner and to the Latin American tradition [of magical realism ]. Writing in a lyrical, flowing style that eschews excessive use of the comma and semicolon, recalling William Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway in equal measure, Cormac McCarthy seizes on the literary traditions of several regions of the United States and includes multiple genres.

He writes in the Southern Gothic aesthetic in his Faulknerian debut, The Orchard Keeper , and Suttree ; in the Epic Western tradition, with grotesquely drawn characters and symbolic narrative turns reminiscent of Melville, in Blood Meridian , which Harold Bloom styled "the greatest single book since Faulkner's As I Lay Dying ", calling the character of Judge Holden "short of Moby Dick , the most monstrous apparition in all of American literature"; [28] in a much more pastoral tone in his celebrated Border Trilogy —98 of bildungsromans , including All the Pretty Horses , winner of the National Book Award ; and in the post-apocalyptic genre in the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Road His novels are noted for achieving both commercial and critical success, several of his works having been adapted to film.

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The Making of London: London in Contemporary Literature - S. Groes - Google книги

Don DeLillo , who rose to literary prominence with the publication of his novel, White Noise , a work broaching the subjects of death and consumerism and doubling as a piece of comic social criticism, began his writing career in with Americana. It was also the runner-up in a survey that asked writers to identify the most important work of fiction of the last 25 years.

Seizing on the distinctly postmodern techniques of digression , narrative fragmentation and elaborate symbolism , and strongly influenced by the works of Thomas Pynchon, David Foster Wallace began his writing career with The Broom of the System , published to moderate acclaim in His second novel, Infinite Jest , a futuristic portrait of America and a playful critique of the media-saturated nature of American life, has been consistently ranked among the most important works of the 20th century, [30] and his final novel, unfinished at the time of his death, The Pale King , has garnered much praise and attention.

In addition to his novels, he also authored three acclaimed short story collections: Girl with Curious Hair , Brief Interviews with Hideous Men and Oblivion: Stories Jonathan Franzen , Wallace's friend and contemporary, rose to prominence after the publication of his National Book Award -winning third novel, The Corrections. He began his writing career in with the well-received The Twenty-Seventh City , a novel centering on his native St.

Louis , but did not gain national attention until the publication of his essay, "Perchance to Dream," in Harper's Magazine , discussing the cultural role of the writer in the new millennium through the prism of his own frustrations. The Corrections , a tragicomedy about the disintegrating Lambert family, has been called "the literary phenomenon of [its] decade" [31] and was ranked as one of the greatest novels of the past century. One of the developments in lateth-century American literature was the increase of literature written by and about ethnic minorities beyond African Americans and Jewish Americans.

This development came alongside the growth of the Civil Rights Movement and its corollary, the ethnic pride movement, which led to the creation of Ethnic Studies programs in most major universities. These programs helped establish the new ethnic literature as worthy objects of academic study, alongside such other new areas of literary study as women's literature , gay and lesbian literature , working-class literature, postcolonial literature , and the rise of literary theory as a key component of academic literary study.

After being relegated to cookbooks and autobiographies for most of the 20th century, Asian American literature achieved widespread notice through Maxine Hong Kingston 's fictional memoir, The Woman Warrior , and her novels China Men and Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book.

Indian-American author Jhumpa Lahiri won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for her debut collection of short stories, Interpreter of Maladies , and went on to write a well-received novel, The Namesake , which was shortly adapted to film in In her second collection of stories, Unaccustomed Earth , released to widespread commercial and critical success, Lahiri shifts focus and treats the experiences of the second and third generation.

Spurred by the success of N. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Literature written or related to the United States. For other uses, see American literature disambiguation. See also: American poetry. See also: Theater of the United States. Further information: List of writers of the Lost Generation. Further information: Nobel Prize in Literature.

See also: Category:American literary awards. See also: Category:American literary critics. Literature portal United States portal. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. New York: W. American Literature , Barron's Educational, A History of American Literature. Blackwell, American Authors. American Transcendentalism: A History. New York: Hill and Wang, 7—8. January 24, Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved January 24, Three Soldiers. Matthews, William Faulkner: seeing through the South Wiley, The New York Times Books.

Retrieved December 3, Touchstone Press, The New York Times. May 21, Retrieved December 4, Retrieved March 3, The Boston Globe.


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Namespaces Article Talk. Hueffer writes: It is. One may sail easily round England, or circumnavigate the globe. But not the most enthusiastic geographer. Certainly no one ever walks round it. For England is a small island, the world is infinitesimal amongst the planets. But London is illimitable. Even as disciplined and dispassionate a commentator as the antiquarian Sir Laurence Gomme, prime mover behind the Victoria County History and first clerk of the London County Council, could know that when he concluded his study The Making of London with the comment "London stands to the nation and the empire as the greatest city the world has ever seen,"[ 5 ] he would be seen as not so much proffering a challengeable judgement as stating an incontrovertible fact.

And when in the early s St. John Adcock compiled another page, three volume, extravaganza with the simple title Wonderful London , its subtitular description announced with admirable understatement the collection's predictable scope: "The World's Greatest City Described by its Best Writers and Pictured by its Finest Photographers. Chroniclers of London's past, showmen of London's present, prophets of London's future could all assume for their subject an incontrovertible centrality in the world's consciousness, a centrality that subordinated their own roles as commentators to the immensity of London itself.

Arthur Maxwell's Discovering London is one of the most extravagant exemplars of the distinctive genre: The capital of the greatest empire this world has ever known, beside which the empires of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome dwindle into insignificance, London occupies a position unique in the annals of history. Towards this city the peoples of the British Commonwealth of Nations turn with an affection unequalled even by the love of the Jews for old Jerusalem.

To colonists in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, Kenya Colony, and the numerous British territories and protectorates around the globe, the thought of London brings a softening of the heart and a moistening of the eyes when one thinks of home. What London says and does to-day is said and done to-morrow -- or the day after -- in Melbourne, Wellington, Calcutta, Quebec, and Cape Town.

Almost as potent is the influence of London upon foreign lands. Though not resulting from family affection, it is none the less real. The power of Britain, its success in arms, its immense riches, its colossal trade, have made the voice of London the voice of a prophet in the affairs of men. There is no project of any importance in any sphere of life concerning which Paris, Berlin, Rome, Madrid, and even New York, are not anxious to learn the opinion and attitude of London.

And even as late as the year in which the main Festival of Britain site dominated the Thames South Bank in a tribute to national achievement consciously evocative of the hyperbole of the Great Exhibition while simultaneously heralding Britain's triumphant new scientific future , H.

The Making of London

Morton, fast becoming by then the grand old man of English travel writing, ends the last of his many books on London in familiar vein: There are cities which, by virtue of the contribution made by their inhabitants to the story of Mankind, are immortal, and London, with Athens and Rome, is among them. The Thames and the Tiber will flow together in history, Westminster Abbey and the Parthenon, strange as it may seem, are not unrelated. If it's a wen, it is at least a great as well as an infernal one. In his Preface to Letters from London , Julian Barnes recalls watching on a Fort Worth television the opening ceremonies for the Los Angeles Olympics: During the march-past of contestants the ABC subtitles explained the location of each country and its size in domestic terms: thus Bhutan was in Central Asia and was "approx.

Wisconsin" , and, saddeningly, about Britain. I was advised to rethink my own country as "size of Oregon. The rhetorical distance between "There is no project of any importance. When the public identity of the city is so diminished, compromised, and ironized, what price a resort to the subjectively associational, the psycho-geographic rather than the topographical, the personal margin rather than the public centre?

For all its ever-expanding ambulatory trianglings across and circlings around London, Sinclair's work -- and I am thinking here particularly although not exclusively of Downriver , Lights Out for the Territory , Liquid City and London Orbital -- displays a claustrophobic, and finally trivializing, obsessiveness in its preoccupation with self and commitment to ingenious cycles of repetition. Sinclair's own volatile consciousness, ranging over the flotsam and jetsam thrown up in the course of his loosely choreographed urban ramblings, forms the primary structuring principle of most of his prose evocations of London.

No road, even one as expansive as the M25, can ever take one away from Sinclair himself.